Sunday, 19 June 2016
Do you sometimes wonder what the future holds?
My family has recently expanded with the addition of a puggle puppy. As an incurable cat-person, one of the canine qualities I have come to admire most is ‘living in the moment’. Hand on heart and I can say the puppy doesn’t worry about the future, but somehow always manages to find some in the present to make her tail wag.
This has taught me to plan less (especially when I can’t influence events) and make more of now. And when it comes to proving how pointless predicting the future is, I was amused to come across these postcards . Originally they were a set of cigarette cards, devised by French artists around 1900, as their take on what they unimaginably distinct year 2000 would look like.
Many of these images involved flight in one form or another, often with wings attached to people. There are aerial taxis, aerial fire-fighters, airborne torpedo ships, and an early imagining of a jet pack. However, this card showing a flying postman, may not be so far from happening if Amazon get their way with the use of drones to deliver packages.
Within the home, the 19th century version of a robot doing housework looks somewhat different from 21st century robotics (and don’t you just love that future imaginings didn’t foresee the end of a maid, especially one in uniform.)
Talking of things domestic, one popular Victorian pastime was diving the future by reading tea-leaves. How exactly did they do this?
Well, the subject drank a cup of tea (made with loose tea leaves) and the cup turned upside down to allow the dregs to drain away. The pattern of the tea leaves at the bottom of the cup was then interpreted.
The following was widely agreed upon as the correct interpretation.
· Long wavy lines: These denoted vexations or losses. The more lines, the more dire to the loss
· Straight lines: Conversly these represent good fortune, peace, and long life.
· Circles: Fortells the arrival of money
· Squares: More peace and happiness
· Rectangles: discord
· A crown: Honor or success
· A ring: Marriage (especially is a letter of the alphabet is conveniently placed besides it, to predict the initial of the future spouse.
· A cross: Death
· Animal shapes: All (except for dogs) forecast trouble and difficulties ahead.
· Reptile shapes: Treachery
· Fish: The expectation of a good dinner…
Going back to those cigarette cards, it would be interesting to work out what combination of tea leaves would have foretold this version of a combine harvester!
 Public Domain Review: A 19th century vision of the year 2000
Sunday, 29 May 2016
Did you know: “Catamaran” is derived from the Italian ‘gatta marina’, and is a vessel that always lands on its feet in high seas.
The modern ship the catamaran is just one example of how cats are linked strongly to the sea. In the days of sailing ships, a cat was considered the guardian spirit of the ship. In theory the cat might have been there to catch vermin, but in reality sailors believed that the feline protected the ship and crew from misfortune.
There are folklore stories of sailors who refused to set sail on a ship because there was no cat on board. Indeed, up until 1975 it was mandatory for a British role Royal Navy to have ship’s cat.
Another indication of the importance of cats to a ship was what happened when a ship was in peril. If a ship was abandoned and the cat went too, then the vessel was considered derelict and was forfeit to the Admiralty or King. However, if the cat remained on board under adverse conditions, the ship was protected from confiscation.
Calling vessels “She” may be a throwback to the ancient Egyptian goddess Isis. She was the patroness of nature, family, and magic – indeed her reputation made it as far as pagan Britain in her divine incarnation as a cat. It seems pagan worship of Isis, then cats with their feminine associations, ensured the vessel took on the female pronoun.
|Statuette of the Egyptian goddess Isis|
Sunday, 22 May 2016
The cat was much persecuted in the later Middle Ages because of her link to witchcraft. But in the early Middle Ages she was revered and had a value equivalent to an adult goat.
So how did cat PR deteriorate so dramatically?
Well, it’s all to do with paganism.
The first factor was how early culture was organized in western Europe around 500 AD. Most people lived in villages that were scattered around the countryside, and there was a lack of central government. This meant it was hard for the church to exert a major influence over the population as a whole. As a result pagan religious traditions were able to persist.
Particularly popular was the cult of Diana, the huntress.
“Wicked women perverted by the devil…in the hours of the night to ride up certain beasts with Diana, the goddess of the pagans….wander from the right faith.”
Witchcraft in the Middle Ages. J B Russell
Part of Diana’s legend was that she rode out into the night on a wild hunt, accompanied by women and their cats. Diana’s female companions were said to obey her, rather than the one true god. Indeed, documents from the early church put worship of Diana on the same level as devil worship.
As Christianity began to spread, the early church had to tackle paganism head on if it wanted to dominate. This meant demonizing paganism and especially the cult of Diana. They did so with mixed success.
“Christian people continued to practice ancient superstitions in a more or less disguised form, and pagan and magical elements entered the saints’ cults.”
So what next?
The Church upped the ante by perverting the worship of Diana into a form of witchcraft. Their propaganda preached the message that those who refused to give up the ‘old ways’ were actually worshipping the devil.
Taking things further still, the Inquisition were doing their part by coercing people into converting. They weren’t afraid to use terror and intimidation in order to make converts, and this often meant persecuting women who resisted and still followed pagan ways. To be accused of “cat worship” became a dangerous thing, which could result in being burnt at the stake. Then according to the Inquisition, many of these ‘agents of the devil’ admitted in their dying confessions that they worshiped cats as agents of the devil.
In the 11th century these confessions were then seized up by Pope Gregory VII who issued a Papal Bull stating that black cats were agents of the devil…and so the persecution began.
Sunday, 15 May 2016
Why is it that dogs are referred to as “he”, whilst cats are “she”?
One explanation, perhaps the most obvious, is the graceful elegance of cats gives them a feminine air. Whilst this is true, it’s only part of the picture and the actual explanation is much less flattering to the feline.
To find the answer we need to go back to a couple of centuries to the Georgian and Victorians, and the birth of pet keeping. In the 18th century more people had disposable income and keeping pets for pleasure (rather than as working animals) became fashionable.
However, not all pets were considered equal. For example, the eagerness of dogs to please and to respond to training, earnt them a label as being loyal, brave, and courageous, which were all desirable male characteristics. Thus dogs were looked on as noble pets that were a fitting companion for man, and in general speech referred to with the male pronoun.
Cats however were a different case. Cats aren’t trainable and prefer to please themselves rather than their mistress. This was strongly frowned upon by the Victorian male who expected obedience from everyone in his household, and upright moral behavior was treasured above all else.
An independent spirit was seen as rebellious, even in an animal. To make matters worse, cats have a habit of escaping and finding a mate, which according to the perceived wisdom of the day meant they were promiscuous.
According to the judgmental Victorian male, the cats’ characteristics of independence (read rebellion) and promiscuity made them akin to prostitutes, and the worst sort of advertisement for feminine wiles. In short, cats became strongly associated with the worst aspect of female behavior and acquired the female pronoun.
Thus dogs became ‘he’ and cats ‘she’.
Sunday, 1 May 2016
It hasn’t always been safe to like cats. In 1484 Pope Innocent VIII issued a papal bull (a law issued by the Vatican) that made it legal to burn those implicated in witch craft, by virtue of owning a cat. Thus, being a cat-owner became a high risk occupation.
As hysteria over witchcraft grew, persecution of cats and cat-owners continued for the next couple of centuries. But in the early 16th century, and the court of King Henry VIII one man was not afraid to like cats – Cardinal Wolsey.
Thomas Wolsey was born in 1473, the son of a cattle dealer and butcher. The young Wolsey studied at Oxford University and joined the church. Obviously a man of talent, he became chaplain to the archbishop of Canterbury and then entered the household of King Henry VII.
This Tudor monarch was prepared to favor talent for its own sake rather than solely promote the nobility, which found Wolsey in the right place at the right time.
Wolsey quickly established a reputation for intelligence, diligence, and diplomacy. When Henry VIII succeeded his father to be king of England, it was natural that he appointed Wolsey as Almoner. The latter’s efficiency and ingenuity won Henry’s trust, so that Wolsey rose and rose, eventually becoming Chancellor and dominating the Royal Council.
But at a time when being a cat lover was dangerous, the Cardinal was just that. He had several and they were said to keep him company whilst he worked hard on the King’s business. A cat also sat with him during mass, behaving impeccably and providing quiet comfort. A cat was often at his side during formal meetings. Indeed, Wolsey was said to take two cats along when he accompanied the king of royal progress. It seemed people exercised tact rather than point out the link between cats and witchcraft to one of the most powerful men in England.
Wolsey’s story came to an unhappy end, but it was nothing to do with cats. When he failed to do what Henry wanted most – to secure his divorce from Catherine of Aragon so that he could marry Anne Boleyn. This saw Wolsey dismissed from his position as Chancellor on 22nd September 1529, and a rapid fall from grace saw him stripped of most of his assets. He died in 1530
Sunday, 24 April 2016
Apologies for a two-week absence of posts. This was due to the arrival of Poggle the Puggle puppy! This week a short post about the character of cats and how they made good illicit pets (at least in medieval times!)
In the Middle Ages pet keeping was frowned upon. This was because animals were seen as servants of man, as adorned by God and set out in the Bible, and to ‘spoil’ them went against nature. There was also the argument that in times of terrible hardship, keeping a pet took food out of the mouths of the starving poor.
Indeed, noblemen did keep pet dogs and overfed them, since obesity was seen as a way of showing off your wealth and that you had so much food you could feed it to the dog.
However, cats were hunters which meant they could fend for themselves and not eat valuable rations. This meant in medieval times many people who had no reason to keep a working dog, could justify contact with a cat. Indeed, working animals were usually kept outside, but the nature of mice meant the cat was allowed indoors, which provided another contact point between people and potential pet.
Women who lived and worked in the home, those in religious orders, and scholars spent a lot of time indoors. The quiet nature of cats meant that those in religious orders could pet a cat without being found out, and cats suited the reflective nature of scholars.
"I have seen in my own order, some lectors who despite being highly learned and of great sanctity had a blemish [pet-keeping] on account of which they were judged frivolous men."
In religious orders especially, it was considered saintly to love wild animals, but frivolous to keep them as pets. The Cistercian order banned keeping of animals for pleasure.
“Cats, dogs, and other animals are not to be kept by nuns as they distract from seriousness.”
But how do legislate against showing affection to the kitchen cat? In reality, a blind eye was often turned when it came to cats, because of their quietness and use as hunters.
Sunday, 3 April 2016
What is a bestiary?
A bestiary is a book about beasts (a sort of early natural history volume); they were popular in the middle ages and reached peek interest Victorian times. Bestiaries were the “Discovery Channel” of their day, offering people a glimpse into an exotic world of fearsome and extraordinary animals that they might otherwise not encounter.
Then as now, people were hugely curious about animals, and a richly detailed bestiary was a source of endless fascination. Indeed, in the 1730s the first children’s natural history book was published and promised to ‘entertain and engage’ attention such that children would develop a reading habit for life.
But the details included were not always what we expect to read in the modern day. For example William Wood’s bestiary of 1792 included descriptions of the animal’s appearance and behavior, but it also described what they tasted like when eaten. The Capybara (a large, guinea pig like rodent from South America) was described as tasting: “Fat and tender…with an oily and fishy taste.” And Edward Topsell’s ‘History of Four-Footed Beasts’ described cat meat as having “poisonous qualities”.
Bestiaries also held another, perhaps less obvious function. In the 16th and 17th century the animal kingdom had yet to be categorized into families, species, and genus. In other words all of animal creation was largely a disordered jumble. To bring order to this chaos writers of bestiaries sometimes ordered their subjects alphabetically, or by location, or by features such as what they ate (carnivore or herbivore) as the author saw fit. By grouping animals together within the pages of the bestiary, this fulfilled a perceived right of man, as top of the creation tree, to assert his superiority over other species.
However, the divisions within a bestiary were not always “scientific” to say the least. One 17th century book divided animals into “Those that are hard to draw” (including the lion, unicorn, horse, and rhinoceros) and “Rough and shaggy haired” (such as dogs).
Alternatively, they might be grouped as to the satisfaction they gave the hunter. Beasts that were hunted included the duck, fox, roe, and marten, whilst beasts that gave “Good sport” included the badger, otter, and wild cat.
It was work by men of thought such as Ray, Buffon, and then Linnaeus who began a movement to group animals according to scientific terms, rather than appearance or moral grounds. This wasn’t without problem though, with some authors of bestiaries apologizing that monkeys appeared too close in relation to man.
“…hoped the no specialist reader would pardon the repugnance we feel to place the monkey at the head of the brute creation, and thus to associate him with man.”
However, other people took an alternative view that the new-fangled scientific groupings helped to emphasize man’s supremacy and his pre-eminence and supremacy in creation. With whatever wry smile we might be tempted to think of bestiaries in the modern age, it remains a fact that they had undying appeal to an audience for whom this was the only way to gaze upon extraordinary creatures and marvel.